Who Supports Walls?

Every now and then some fuck-witted liberal, or occasionally a libertarian, will say that the human species really is not that violent, and that we’d all just get along if only (etc.).

This is dangerously naive. Anthropologists, before modern political correctness became a big problem, documented how very murderous our species is. There are cases in which a village in Africa will do a night raid on another village and kill every man, woman, and child in it. Also, western intellectuals sometimes say (either with self-flagellating guilt or chest-puffing pride) that Western culture’s militaries are the world’s deadliest. Well, in terms of raw numbers I’m inclined to believe that (if we ignore Mao, anyway), but it seems to be just a fact about military technology. In proportional terms were are not especially lethal.
(The content of this paragraph is drawn from Steven Pinker’s wonderfully heterodox The Blank Slate.)

This also explains why people who aren’t completely insane have a gut-level instinct against admitting people from other cultures into their societies, at least in large numbers. That’s an instinct, plainly; it’s not learned, no matter many idiots insist it is leaned. Consider those African night raids again.

In this regard, the difference between male and female instincts is, once again, clear and relevant. Men vote against invaders and political groups that want to admit invaders. Women are more complicated. I have noted before that many women will work to admit invaders into their home societies so they can play a game of Let’s You and Him Fight. For real-world examples see the USA and Western Europe lately. For a fictional example see my review of Justina Robson’s Keeping It Real.

Note, though, that while men clearly want to exclude invaders, women are split. In the 2016 election, “only” 43% of white women voted for the pro-invasion candidate. 53% of white women voted for the anti-invader candidate. The rest threw their vote away on third party candidates rather than vote for the pro-invader candidate the media was telling them to vote for. This has to do with the African slaughter I mentioned above: Women are sometimes prizes in war, but sometimes victims of war. Being invaded is a gamble from a woman’s point of view. From a man’s point of view it’s always bad.

Thus we have some women in some contexts supporting invasion of their own societies; other women in other contexts oppose it.

It is also a fact that women try to gain sexual access to alpha men and prevent contact with beta men. This affects sexual harassment procedure, mostly designed by women, as it applies to the workplace, e.g. They try to exclude sub-alpha males from social-sexual contact with them. The point is, women don’t always want an influx of any men into their sanctuaries. Reproductive optimization from a female’s point of view is more complicated than that.

Additionally:

In Nash Equilibrium, we would not expect all women to be genetically programmed to issue society-threatening shit tests. The reason is that, if say half the women start such, the other half will also gain the knowledge or benefit from the results (whatever those benefits are). Furthermore, a woman who doesn’t shit test is more attractive to men than one who does. She free rides on the shit-testers, at their expense. Free riding generally plays the villain in discussions of human interactions, and often rightly so, but this is a case in which free riding has good consequences.

(A reminder to any chicks reading this: The fact that you find shit tests and the associated drama and strife to be fun and exciting, doesn’t mean that men do. Any more than the fact that dung beetles like eating poop means that you also like eating poop. Men and women are really different, biologically different.)

It might be objected that maybe there is just one kind of psychology of shit testing, so any woman who has the “shit testing genes,” i.e. all women, will potentially throw out a society-threatening shit test. But still: some women are more shit-testy, some less so.

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A Warning to the Future

…from 2018.

Yes, we know the insanity we’re swamped in is insane.

A few examples of what I’m referring to:

California downgrades knowingly infecting someone with HIV from a felony to a misdemeanor.
http://www.latimes.com/politics/essential/la-pol-ca-essential-politics-updates-gov-brown-downgrades-from-felony-to-1507331544-htmlstory.html

Hispanic student in college newspaper, to white people: “Your DNA is an Abomination… I hate you because you shouldn’t exist.”
https://www.campusreform.org/?ID=10206

Seattle councilman: Removing human feces from sidewalks is “racist.”
http://dailycaller.com/2017/07/12/seattle-councilman-cleaning-poop-off-sidewalks-is-racist/

Transvestite in bathroom sexually assaults 10-year-old girl:
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5000666/Transgender-woman-guilty-sexually-assaulting-girl-10.html

Feminist: “If you have a penis you probably deserve murdering.”
https://twitchy.com/sarahd-313035/2017/11/24/have-a-penis-woke-blue-checked-filmmaker-kate-morgan-says-you-deserve-murdering/

The problem is not, as you might think, that everyone in my time is insane. Of course we know the current raging hate-filled psychopathic idiocy for what it is. It’s just that it’s not easy or quick to put an end to it. If it were as simple as one person standing up at a lectern and saying, “This is raging hate-filled psychopathic idiocy!” it would have ended decades ago. But the perpetrators don’t care – they’re sadists who enjoy inflicting hateful insanity on others; that’s the entire point for them. And normal people know it’s insanity; the problem is to organize collective action to fight it.

Once the psychotics have amassed a certain amount of social power – which they do by stealth at first – it becomes risky in certain ways to speak up. This doesn’t mean no one is speaking up – if you read contemporaneous accounts you’ll see many people are – but it does make it more difficult to recruit the 90-something percent of people who are sane to all speak up at once. (To induce every sane person to speak up at once, and create an overwhelming and publicly visible consensus against the insanity, would be the easiest way to end it without violence.)

Furthermore, the evil have a certain amount of animal cunning about taking and holding power, because that’s all they ever think about. On average they are less intelligent than the population as a whole… but they are obsessed. And one does acquire a certain facility at activities with which one is obsessed. So for examples:

They immediately move to isolate and hurt anyone who speaks out. “Hurt” here could mean many things, from violence, to making death-threat phone calls in the middle of the night, to having the person fired from their employment, to staging a boycott of the person’s business, and so on.

They obsessively, obsessively move to take over the idea-spreading professions – the news media and the educational system – to instill an utterly false worldview in the minds of the population. Normal people want to have enjoyable lives, to have hobbies, to enjoy friends and family, to have a career that is satisfying in and of itself – but these people only crave a career that lets them stifle any information which reveals their side to be the evil that it is, and spread any lies which make their side look good.

They engage in electoral fraud incessantly.

And to the extent that fraud doesn’t suffice, they buy votes. Many of their constituents are people who will be hurt drastically, or outright murdered, if the psychos ever acquire total power. But those constituents don’t think that far ahead. So they vote for whoever promises a heavier basket of state-funded goodies. And of course, the evil have fewer scruples than the good about using this political tactic.

And they have infiltrated the government in key areas, including, as I write this, the intelligence agencies. Those are the worst institutions for them to have infiltrated (from the point of view of decent people), because they have surveillance technology everywhere and by necessity they operate in secrecy. The evil love secrecy.

None of this is to suggest that the struggle against these vile maniacs is hopeless. Au contraire, as I write this I have good hope and the momentum has shifted dramatically in our favor in the last few years. And of course, in every conflict, each side has advantages and disadvantages; one just keeps fighting.

Rather, my point is this: There is a reason that the prevailing discourse asserts things that are obviously insane, and the reason is not that anyone believes it. The reason is that power-mad psychotics spent decades infiltrating themselves into positions where they could stifle and attack those who would question it.

Everyone knows the emperor is not wearing any clothes. Everyone knows, for example, that a man in a dress is not a woman. The question is how to get everyone to say it, and to say it publicly, and how to make fence-sitters understand, before the rage-mob shows up at their door, that the problem is the trend, not the state of the system at the current moment in time. We need to make people realize how urgent the situation already is and induce them to start fighting.

When I was younger I thought that episodes like the Salem Witch Trials happened because people back then were so benighted as to actually believe in witches! Ha! The absurdity of it! In light of our current situation, I now rather suspect that no one believed any such thing. Any more than anyone really believes that being heterosexual is a form of “bigotry.” No, the problem is a particular kind of social dynamics, namely holiness spirals. The problem is not one of stupidity and actual belief. It is one of incentives, of bad Nash Equilibria which the evil deliberately try to establish.

Understand, the very moment some political group begins asserting something that is obviously false: You are in a war. It is not a debate – though of course persuasion of the neutral is part of the conflict. It is a war with a type of madman and madwoman who, every time they attained power in the 20th century, slaughtered people by the millions. Understand that, and start planning, not to convince them, but to defeat them.

The Game Theory of Holiness Spirals

If a social process is accelerating, why is it? Is it because of, say, learning? (E.g., a new technology: The more people use it, the more non-users see it, so the faster it spreads.) Or is it because there are game-theoretic reasons for it? The latter is obviously the case with a holiness spiral.

Holiness Spirals

A holiness spiral is when a group of people try to outdo each other in expressions of ideological piety. Other terms are signaling spiral (because people are competitively signaling their faith), purity spiral (I’m ideologically pure!), and Left Singularity. The last term is due to the fact that the current holiness spiral in the western world is a leftist phenomenon.

A key part of such a spiral is that one attacks people to one’s right, but not to one’s left. Indeed, participants are expected to attack those to their right as an expression of piety. The driving dynamic is that it makes sense to say, “That guy’s not holy enough! Attack him!” but it does not make sense to say, “That guy’s too holy! Attack him!”

As far as I know, Jim of blog.jim.com came up with the concept of a holiness spiral/ left-wing singularity, and if he didn’t, he’s certainly doing more with the concept than anyone else. (See e.g. here: http://blog.jim.com/war/recap-on-the-left-singularity/)

As noted, the current holiness spiral is a leftist one. An example of the leftist acceleration:

• The time from gay marriage first being mentioned, to the moment leftists started calling opponents of gay marriage “bigots,” was about 15 years.

• The time from the start of Transvestite Lib to the moment leftists called a man who refused to kiss a tranny a “bigot” was about 3 years.

The process was well articulated by whatever asshole leftist came up with the slogan pas d’ennemis à gauche: “No enemy to the left.” (It started in Revolutionary France; see e.g. http://www.newoxfordreview.org/article.jsp?did=0701-whitehead and was, unsurprisingly, important in Soviet Russia: https://infogalactic.com/info/Alexander_Kerensky)
That established the dynamic. It would have happened anyway, but this slogan certainly accelerated it. It explicitly created the incentive to attack people to one’s right only, thus created the incentive for every leftist to try to get to the left of— to out-holy— every other leftist.

There’s only one way that ends. If everyone is rushing to get to the left of everyone else, obviously there will be acceleration to the left, which will never stop until it hits the most extreme possible situation: Genocide or an attempt at genocide that starts a civil war.

We are not at overt civil war yet, but we have entered the start of it. Consider our political situation right now: We are obviously living in Chapter One of every history book about a civil war ever written.

The Game Theory

The central problem of a holiness spiral is that the advantage is relative. That is, what determines whether the mob attacks you is not your absolute position, but your position relative to everyone else. That’s what creates the incentive for the perpetual leftward movement and the acceleration of that movement.

Importantly, when the participants in the holiness spiral realize they’re in a holiness spiral the problem becomes worse, not better. There are two key moments in a holiness spiral. The first is when is when a typical participant in the spiral notices that the movement to the left is accelerating. The second key moment is when a typical participant not only notices that the movement left is accelerating, but realizes that everyone else must also be noticing that. Then he starts thinking game-theoretically:

If some holiness spiral participant, call him Fred, notices the rapid leftward movement, then he has an incentive to move leftward too, to stay in the middle of the group. In fact, to be safe, he has an incentive to move left a little faster than he expects other people to move. That will leave him a margin for error, so that at worst, he stays in the middle, and at best, he’s a little to the left of the average, so he’s somewhat more holy than average.

But eventually Fred thinks: “Hmm, but presumably a lot of people are thinking the same way I just did. So they’ll also try to move more rapidly to the left.” For example, if the average belief is that the movement will be 10 miles per hour, then everyone actually has an incentive to move at, say, 12 miles per hour. That way there’s a margin for error, and at worst you outpace the average person a little to the left, which is always safe. (Being to the right isn’t safe.)

Note the logic here. For everyone to expect movement of X miles per hour is actually not a Nash Equilibrium, because if everyone believed that, then they wouldn’t behave that way; they’d move faster. Thus we have a proof by contradiction: Assume everyone expects movement of X mph. Then they have incentive to actually move at X+2 mph. Thus the acceleration.

But of course, it’s even worse than that. Because once Fred thinks game-theoretically, drawing the conclusions I’ve just drawn, he realizes that everybody else is, or will soon start, thinking that way too. So Fred’s incentive is to move leftward at 14 mph. That is, suppose everyone at first anticipates movement of 10 mph. Then their reasoning process tells each individual he’d better move at 12 mph. But it occurs to him that other people might also reason this out and move at 12 mph, so he thinks, “Hmm, actually I’d better move at 14 mph.” And so on.

Plainly this process has no sane limit.

This is why Jim notes that a holiness spiral cannot last forever; it must be forcibly stopped either by civil war, someone seriously stepping on the brakes with hardcore punishments for trying to out-holy everyone else, or until everybody goes as extreme as possible. The most extreme possible position is that everyone who’s a sinner must be tortured to death immediately, and indeed, that is where these things often end up. E.g., various Communist states’ purges in the 20th century.

Killing a Spiral

There are other possibilities, of course. For example, if I correctly recall the history of the Salem Witch Trials: At some point the Salem Witch Persecutions simply became too extreme, with everybody at risk because anyone could accuse anyone else of being a witch, and no one was safe. And it became obvious that some innocent people were being executed, when people standing on the gallows refused to confess and recant, and went to their deaths instead. So the thing was stopped, apparently by a sudden public agreement that the entire thing was BS and had Gone Too Far. Everyone just woke up and said, “What the fuck were we thinking?” Or the incentive to speak up became overwhelming, since you were likely to be accused of being a witch and sentenced to death even if you remained silent.

It would be good to try to push things in that direction, the Salem direction. The most obvious example is to make it clear to white people that this is tending toward the most holy thing of all, as leftists currently define holiness, which is torturing all white people to death. They won’t succeed, but the civil war they’ll force upon us will certainly create an astoundingly large pile of bodies. ’Twere best avoided. Getting white people to see where this is headed is one way to increase the number of people pushing back. And most of the western world is still white. Important: Spreading the idea of the holiness spiral increases the incentive for those participating in it to move leftward faster, but it increases the incentive for everyone else to resist.

The reason that participants in a spiral participate in it, beyond a certain point, is that they perceive it (correctly or not) to be their safest option. As more people oppose the HS, it becomes safer to exit the HS. That’s crucial.

It is, in fact, one reason the left tries to prevent people from realizing that there is widespread opposition to left-wing ideas. They know that a preference cascade can ruin their entire plan.

PREFERENCE CASCADE is indeed a kind of equal and opposite dynamic to a holiness spiral. It’s an important part of our conceptual and practical toolkit as we try to fight the HS.

A preference cascade can occur in an environment of widespread preference falsification, which is when everyone lies about their preferences. It could be because you’d damn well better lie – e.g., in 1940 in the USSR, you’d better say that Stalin is wonderful, or else. Or it could be just because you don’t want to say things that you’re afraid will make you unpopular, perceived as foolish, etc. A preference cascade is when enough people say, “The orthodoxy is bullshit!” and that can encourage others to join in, etc., until the orthodoxy is destroyed.

Such a cascade is exemplified by the little boy shouting, “Hey! The Emperor’s not wearing any clothes!” This can lead to other people – it doesn’t have to be everyone at first – saying, “Yeah, that’s true, he’s not wearing any clothes!” Then more people chime in, and so on, until the explicit consensus has converged to the truth, that the Emperor has no clothes.

Note though that there are always evil people who actually enjoy attacking others; indeed that’s who starts a spiral in the first place. So just pointing and laughing at leftists, even after the preference cascade, may not be enough. It is very plausible (Jim again) that some sort of firm incentive will be necessary to robustly discourage continued participation in holiness signaling.

Memetically Engineered Super-Meme

Version 1.0, subject to revision. This is the “meta” parts of the meme; the actual substance of it is a different topic.

1. If you follow the rules you will live forever after your physical death, in perfect bliss.

2. If you do not follow the rules you will be tormented forever after your death.

3. Our triumph is inevitable.

4. It is forbidden to spread the Word by force.

5. It is obligatory to spread the Word by persuasion.

6. It is obligatory to spread the Word by example.

7. It is obligatory to spread the Word by reproduction; it is obligatory for a believer to have as many children as possible.

8. If adherents of other ideologies attack you, you are always permitted, and obligated when it is safe for you, to respond with the maximum possible violence. Show them no mercy; kill all aggressors.

9. Refrain from violence against believers and unbelievers alike, unless they commit violence against you, take or damage your property, or commit fraud against you, or threaten to do any of these things.

10. Refrain from theft and vandalism against believers and unbelievers alike, unless they commit violence against you, take or damage your property, or commit fraud against you, or threaten to do any of these things.

11. Refrain from fraud against believers and unbelievers alike, unless they commit violence against you, take or damage your property, or commit fraud against you, or threaten to do any of these things.

Numbers 4, 9, 10, and 11 have a recognizably libertarian cast, probably because when I first drafted this I was a libertarian. The idea is to minimize unnecessary conflict. Libertarianism in its basic scheme is practical. “You don’t fuck me and I won’t fuck with you” is practical, and indeed is the basic behavior of the vast majority of people in everyday life. Most people, most of the time, do not start street fights with most other people. Most nations are not at war with most other nations most of the time. Etc.

On the other hand perhaps there’s an empirical argument against them? How many of the meme complexes that we observe empirically actually explicitly have features 4, 9, 10, and 11, including unbelievers in their protection? This is a relevant question because the memes that we observe empirically are the results of memetic evolution, as surely as the organisms that we observe empirically are the results of biological evolution. If most memes don’t have those features, that tells us something about their viability. But I don’t know the empirical answer to the empirical question I asked. Maybe most memeplexes do have them.

On the gripping hand, societies that implemented something like those in their laws and culture became successful, powerful, and pleasant places to live, while they adhered to them, so there’s that.

A Political Science Thought Experiment

Scott Alexander at Slate Star Codex:

[I]magine a world with a magic artifact at the North Pole which makes it literally impossible to violate laws. The countries of the far north are infinitely orderly with no need for police at all. [NB: And Jews who don’t want to be marched into gas chambers are out of luck, since they can’t resist the edicts even if Nazis take power.] Go further south and the strength of the artifact decreases, until you’re at the edge of the Arctic Circle and it might be possible to violate a very minor law if your life was in danger. By the time you’re at the Equator, any kind of strong urge lets you violate most laws, and by the Tropic of Capricorn you can violate all but the most sacred laws with only a slight feeling of resistance. Finally you reach the nations of the South Pole, where the laws are enforced by nothing but a policeman’s gun.

Where would you want to live in such a world?

I don’t know, but that’s an awesome thought experiment. I wonder what would actually happen? I mean, in a world of well-meaning people, government would seem to be unnecessary. In a world with a mixed bag of people, I initially thought this: All the bad actors are going to congregate at the no-law place (the South Pole), thus ruining it for any well-meaning mellow pot-smoking anarchists who might just want to chill there.

But it’s not that simple. The game theory of the self-selection effect is fascinating. In the preceding paragraph, I was assuming that the “bad actors” range from garden-variety assholes who like doing mailbox vandalism, up to retail-level serial killers. BUT: The most evil people in history are not retail-level killers. They’re killers who got to the top of nations’ governments and implemented wholesale genocide, slaughtering people by the millions. These psychopaths would not gravitate to the South Pole. They’d gravitate to the North Pole, and do everything in their power to try to gain control of the laws.

Now where would you want to be?

A related thought experiment is this: To preclude any self-selection effects, imagine that the relevant regime is going to cover the entire planet. If you were the person who got to make that decision for the world, which regime would you choose for the planet?

That is not a trivial question, but I would choose the South Pole option, i.e., no enforcement but what humans themselves implement. After all, that’s what we have now, and even that is too much government.

Here’s a meta-question: Would you push a button that would randomly select a person from the world population to make this decision for the whole planet?

Me neither. A good case for limited-state democracy, with the emphasis on the “limited-state” part.

Another question: Just how are the laws to be made? I mean, are these unbreakable North Pole laws made by any dickhead who manages to cobble together a 5/9 majority of the Supreme Court? (Let’s be realistic about how our laws are actually made these days.) Or does it have to be at least a 75% – 25% majority in a popular referendum? Or what?

Time Inconsistency in the Mating Game and Other Games

In the comments here the talk turned to the game that goes on between men and women who are potential mates. On the temptation to cheat, one commenter ironically asks,

“At once, she wants to defect, but also to provoke a forced cooperation?”

The answer is Sure, this can make sense. The game theory of such situations, in which a person benefits by limiting their own future behavior, is very well-established.

For example, consider a powerful monarch who can default on his debts without his creditors being able to do anything about it. Since potential creditors know this, no one is willing to lend to him in the first place. (This problem doesn’t always occur, but it does if people have sufficient reason to worry that he’ll default.) If the monarch could be submitted to a more powerful entity that could make him pay his debts back in the future – and if this were commonly known – then people would be willing to lend him money today.

Thus it is true that both

(1) the monarch in some sense wants to defect (default on his debts)
and
(2) the monarch in some sense wants to be forced to cooperate (pay his debts back).

This sort of situation is pervasive and much of human custom and law is devoted to dealing with it. Speaking of male/female mating games, it is the reason that in most societies, marital infidelity is illegal. It is the reason that people are disgusted by those who lie, break promises, welsh on bets, etc. Societies that enforce such norms do better in the long run than those without them. And think of credit markets in general, never mind the above monarch. If the law did not force borrowers to pay back their debts, imagine how difficult it would be to borrow money in the first place. In extreme scenarios, credit markets would disappear entirely.

Put “time inconsistency” commitment into a search engine.

“Time inconsistency” refers to the fact that people’s desires can be inconsistent across time. E.g., at the time that you’re trying to borrow money, you’d like to be forced to pay your future debts back, because knowing that makes lenders willing to lend to you right now. But later, after you’ve gotten your hands on the borrowed money, then (if you’re an amoral asshole) you’d like to be able to default on your debts. Thus we have mechanisms that enforce “commitment,” which in this example means the law commits you to paying back your debts.

In general, people often can benefit by being committed to a course of action in the future, whether it’s marital fidelity or paying your debts back, etc.

SJW Mobs and Coordination Mechanisms

In my previous post The Revolution Eats its Own I noted in passing that the excuses that SJW mobs use to attack people are not important as such, even to the SJWs. Rather they function as coordination mechanisms.

That is, they’re a way of coordinating all the members of the attack mob on the same target. It doesn’t do any good for the ten million (or however many there are) attackers to each attack ten million different people. But if there’s some signal that lets all ten million of them focus on the same victim, they can do more damage, since the victim is overwhelmed, and the attackers will be safer, because any counterattack will be thinly spread over so many of them.

I once read an article about predators like lions and how the members of the pride focus on a single prey animal among a herd of, say, zebras, to chase down. Obviously lions can’t just say, “Alright, everybody, let’s go for the one on the left.” They need another way to coordinate. Turns out that what they do is focus on any individual zebra with a feature that makes it stand out. Each lion notices that zebra and knows the other lions will also notice it, so they can all coordinate on attacking that one.

We often hear that predators single out the weak and injured because they’re weak and injured, and I’m sure this is partly true, but it’s also partly because the one zebra that’s limping is standing out among all the ones that aren’t. To test this, the article mentioned, scientists studying the lions selected an arbitrary zebra and spray-painted its flank with pink paint. The lions all went after that one. The zebra itself is arbitrary; what matters to the lions is that they all focus on the same zebra.

Yeah, so you can see where this is going. SJWs obviously don’t give a damn about your posing next to a swastika in the sand at a beach six years ago. No, they didn’t really believe that if you disagreed with any Obama policy it’s because you’re “racist.” They use things like that to attack because they’ve settled on that sort of thing as a coordination device. A hundred years ago it was, I guess, “That guy said something irreligious!” Now it’s “That guy said something racist!” Nobody cares what you said. They just want a way for a distributed mob to coordinate on a victim.

(By the way, disagreeing with which Obama policy on gay marriage makes you racist? His policy from 2008 or his policy from 2012?)

Maybe we can use this somehow to hobble these pitchfork-wielding assholes. Can we introduce noise into the signal of whom to attack? That would disrupt the coordination mechanism. An obvious possibility is to pick a relatively minor SJW attack cue and signal-boost it. If enough of us start screaming “age-ist!” or “kink-shaming!” sufficiently frequently, it will swamp the major ones like “racism!” to an extent.

And of course, there are other benefits too:
(1) The proliferation of “bigotry!” accusations means that an ever-larger number of people are unsafe, and know it. This gives them an incentive to fight the whole “bigotry!” witchhunt.
(2) The sheer proliferation of idiotic “bigotry!” attacks makes them harder and harder to take seriously. Hilariously, the SJWs are doing this to themselves already. It makes you wonder how much of this crap is genuine, and how much is black-knighting pranksters deliberately disrupting the rage mobs. Memo to SJWs: When it’s impossible to tell you from your enemies trying to discredit you, you might want to re-think some things.

In summary, understanding “bigotry!” as a coordination device will facilitate the development of ways to fight it. Black knighting, in order to disrupt, distract, and lower their signal-to-noise ratio, will be especially helpful. After all, a large number of coordination mechanisms is a contradiction in terms; it defeats the entire purpose. Many coordination mechanisms is no coordination mechanism at all.